Recognized as the first computer programmer for her work on Charles Babbage's analytical engine, laying the groundwork for modern computing.
Pioneered research in radioactivity, discovered polonium and radium, and was the first woman to win a Nobel Prize, later earning a second in a different field.
India's first female plant scientist, known for her work in hybridization and biodiversity conservation.
Played a key role in the experimental proof of the non-conservation of parity in weak nuclear interactions, a cornerstone in modern physics.
Her mathematical genius helped ensure the success of the U.S. manned spaceflights, including Apollo 11's moon landing.
Made critical contributions to understanding the molecular structures of DNA, RNA, viruses, coal, and graphite.
Her discovery of the discrepancy between the predicted angular motion of galaxies and the observed motion provided key evidence for the existence of dark matter.
Her mathematical models of the Earth's shape were integral in the development of the Global Positioning System (GPS).
A virologist and molecular biologist who was the first to clone HIV and map its genes, significantly advancing AIDS research.
Co-developer of CRISPR-Cas9, a groundbreaking gene-editing technology that has revolutionized genetic research and therapy.